Download Words and Stones: The Politics of Language and Identity in by Daniel Lefkowitz PDF

By Daniel Lefkowitz

Social and ethnic id are nowhere extra enmeshed with language than in Israel. Words and Stones explores the politics of id in Israel via an research of the social lifetime of language. via studying the social offerings Israelis make once they converse, and the social meanings such offerings produce, Daniel Lefkowitz finds how Israeli identities are negotiated via language. Lefkowitz reviews 3 significant languages and their position within the social lives of Israelis: Hebrew, the dominant language, Arabic, and English. He finds their complicated interrelationship by means of exhibiting how the language a speaker chooses to exploit is as vital because the language they decide upon to not use - within the comparable means declare to an Israeli id is concurrently a declare opposed to different, opposing identities. the result's a compelling research of the way the id of "Israeliness" is linguistically negotiated within the three-way fight between Ashkenazi (Jewish), Mizrahi (Jewish), and Palestinian (Arab) Israelis. Lefkowitz's ethnography of language-use is either completely anthropological and carefully linguistic, and gives a entire view of the position language performs in Israeli society. His paintings will attract scholars and students of sociolinguistics, anthropology, and linguistic anthropology, in addition to scholars and students of Israel and the center East.

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Download Syrien: Ein Land im Krieg. Hintergründe, Analysen, Berichte by Liselotte Abid,Karin Leukefeld,Norman Paech,Carsten PDF

By Liselotte Abid,Karin Leukefeld,Norman Paech,Carsten Wieland,Karin Kneissl,Stefan Brocza,Patrick Seale,Karin Kulow,Werner Ruf,Nikolaus Brauns,Fritz Edlinger,Tyma Kraitt

Seit 2011 tobt ein Bürgerkrieg in Syrien. Beginnend mit einem Aufstand gegen das Regime von Bashar al-Assad im März dieses Jahres hat sich ein Flächenbrand durch das ganze Land gefressen, dem mindestens 200.000 Menschen zum Opfer gefallen sind und der Millionen zur Flucht gezwungen hat. Die Fronten werden von Monat zu Monat unklarer, und seit der sogenannte „Islamische Staat" im Süden und Kurdenmilizen im Norden autonome Verwaltungen und Kriegsregime aufgezogen haben, kann von einem einheitlichen syrischen Staat nicht mehr gesprochen werden.

Das Land in der Levante ist von der aktuellen Berichterstattung und den politischen Auseinandersetzungen rund um die Neugestaltung des Nahen und Mittleren Ostens nicht mehr wegzudenken. Die Dauer des Konflikts, die unklaren Machtverhältnisse und die Gefahr einer Destabilisierung der gesamten quarter machen eine ausführliche Auseinandersetzung wichtiger denn je.

Das Buch „Syrien. Ein Land im Krieg. Hintergründe, Analysen, Berichte" bietet einen Einblick in die vielschichtigen Aspekte der syrischen Geschichte und Gesellschaft sowie in die strukturellen Ursachen des Bürgerkrieges. Einen weiteren Schwerpunkt stellen die fragilen Nachbarschaftsbeziehungen und die oftmals unbeständigen geostrategischen Allianzen dar. Eine ausführliche Zeittafel zur Geschichte des modernen Syrien - vom Zerfall des Osmanischen Reiches bis zu den aktuellen Ereignissen - und ein Literaturüberblick runden den Band ab.

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Download Days of Revolution: Political Unrest in an Iranian Village by Mary Elaine Hegland PDF

By Mary Elaine Hegland

outdoor of Shiraz within the Fars Province of southwestern Iran lies "Aliabad." Mary Hegland arrived during this then-small agricultural village of numerous thousand humans in the summertime of 1978, blind to the momentous alterations that may sweep this city and this state within the months forward. She grew to become the single American researcher to witness the Islamic Revolution firsthand over her eighteen-month remain. Days of Revolution bargains an insider's view of the way ordinary humans have been drawn into, skilled, and inspired the 1979 Revolution and its aftermath.
Conventional knowledge assumes Shi'a non secular ideology fueled the progressive circulation. yet Hegland counters that the Revolution unfold via even more pragmatic matters: becoming inequality, loss of improvement and employment possibilities, executive corruption. neighborhood expectancies of leaders and the political process—expectations constructed from their event with conventional kinship-based factions—guided neighborhood villagers' attitudes and decision-making, and so they frequently followed the non secular justifications for Revolution basically after becoming a member of the rebellion. Sharing tales of clash and revolution along in-depth interviews, the e-book sheds new gentle in this severe ancient moment.
Returning to Aliabad many years later, Days of Revolution closes with a view of the village and revolution thirty years on. Over the process a number of visits among 2003 and 2008, Mary Hegland investigates the lasting results of the Revolution at the neighborhood political factions and in person lives. As Iran is still front-page information, this intimate examine the country's contemporary background and its humans hasn't ever been extra well timed or serious for knowing the serious interaction of neighborhood and worldwide politics in Iran.

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Download The Silk Road in World History (New Oxford World History) by Xinru Liu PDF

By Xinru Liu

The Silk highway was once the modern identify for a fancy of historical exchange routes linking East Asia with important Asia, South Asia, and the Mediterranean international. This community of trade emerged alongside the borders among agricultural China and the steppe nomads throughout the Han Dynasty (206BCE-220CE), as a result of the inter-dependence and the conflicts of those detailed societies. of their quest for horses, fragrances, spices, gem stones, glassware, and different exotics from the lands to their west, the Han Empire prolonged its dominion over the oases round the Takla Makan barren region and despatched silk all of the solution to the Mediterranean, both in the course of the land routes resulting in the caravan urban of Palmyra in Syria desolate tract, or when it comes to northwest India, the Arabian Sea and the crimson Sea, touchdown at Alexandria. The Silk street survived the turmoil of the death of the Han and Roman Empires, reached its golden age in the course of the early heart age, whilst the Byzantine Empire and the Tang Empire grew to become facilities of silk tradition and demonstrated the versions for top tradition of the Eurasian global. the arrival of Islam prolonged silk tradition to an excellent higher sector and cleared the path for an increased marketplace for textiles and different commodities. by way of the eleventh century, despite the fact that, the Silk highway was once in decline due to extreme festival from the ocean routes of the Indian Ocean.

Using offer and insist because the framework for reading the formation and improvement of the Silk highway, the publication examines the dynamics of the interactions of the nomadic pastoralists with sedentary agriculturalists, and the unfold of latest rules, religions, and values into the area of trade, hence illustrating the cultural forces underlying fabric transactions. This attempt at tracing the interconnections of the varied members within the transcontinental Silk street trade will display that the realm have been associated via financial and ideological forces lengthy sooner than the trendy era.

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Download Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabal by Beshara Doumani PDF

By Beshara Doumani

Drawing on formerly unused basic assets, this booklet paints an intimate and brilliant portrait of Palestinian society at the eve of modernity. in the course of the voices of retailers, peasants, and Ottoman officers, Beshara Doumani deals an incredible revision of normal interpretations of Ottoman background through investigating the ways that urban-rural dynamics in a provincial environment appropriated and gave desiring to the bigger forces of Ottoman rule and eu financial growth. He strains the connection among tradition, politics, and fiscal swap by means of taking a look at how service provider households developed exchange networks and cultivated political strength, and through exhibiting how peasants outlined their identification and formulated their notions of justice and political authority.

Original and obtainable, this examine demanding situations nationalist structures of heritage and offers a context for realizing the Palestinian-Israeli clash. it's also the 1st accomplished paintings at the Nablus area, Palestine's exchange, production, and agricultural heartland, and a bastion of neighborhood autonomy. Doumani rediscovers Palestine via writing the population of this old land into history.

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Download Lebanon in Perspective - Orientation Guide and Lebanese by U. S. Government,U.S. Military,Department of Defense PDF

By U. S. Government,U.S. Military,Department of Defense

it is a professionally-formatted, unfastened flowing booklet copy of distinctive, up to date courses produced via the dep. of security that supply accomplished information regarding all facets of existence in Lebanon, with a unique emphasis on geography, heritage, the economic climate, society, safety and army concerns, faith, traditions, city and rural existence, ethnic teams, crime, the surroundings, govt, vacations, gender matters and masses more.

CHAPTER 1: GEOGRAPHY * Geographic areas and Topographic positive aspects * The Coastal simple * Lebanon Mountains * Bekaa Valley and Anti-Lebanon Mountains * weather * our bodies of Water * towns * Tripoli * Sidon * Tyre * Zahle * Nabatiye * typical dangers * Environmental matters * bankruptcy 2: heritage * advent: First, the Phoenicians * Assyrians and Babylonians * Greeks and Romans * Maronites, Druze, and Shi'ites * Crusader States and the Mamluks * Ottoman Lebanon until eventually 1860 * Ottoman period After 1860 * WWI and the French Mandate * The nationwide Pact * Independence and Post-Independence * Calm and disenchanted: Shihabism, Palestinians * starting of the Civil warfare * Israel, the PLO, and Hizballah * The Taif contract and the second one Republic * The Cedar Revolution * Hizballah and Israel, Ongoing Crises * bankruptcy three: economic climate * Agriculture * and production * exchange * Tourism * Banking and foreign money * funding * Transportation * way of life * bankruptcy four: SOCIETY * advent * Ethnic and Linguistic teams * faith * Gender and family members concerns * conventional garments * Arts * Literature * track * activities and game * bankruptcy five: safety * U.S.-Lebanese family members * relatives With Neighboring international locations * Syria * Israel * army * Terrorist teams and actions * different matters Affecting balance * unique Tribunal for Lebanon * Syrian Unrest * Palestinian Refugee Camps * bankruptcy 1: PROFILE * Geography * zone * Geographic Divisions and weather * weather * our bodies of Water * significant towns * smooth historical past * Independence and Civil battle * Reconciliation and Reconstruction * executive * Media * economic system * Ethnic and spiritual teams * bankruptcy 2: faith * review * significant Religions * Muslim Sects * adjustments among Sunnis and Shi'ites * Christian Sects * Druze * faith and govt * effect of faith on lifestyle * spiritual vacation trips * Muslim vacations * Christian vacation trips * locations of Worship * Mosques * church buildings * habit in structures of Worship * bankruptcy three: TRADITIONS * Codes of Politeness * Gender matters * Hospitality and present Giving * consuming conduct and foodstuff * gown Codes * Nonreligious vacations * Dos and Don'ts * bankruptcy three evaluation * bankruptcy four: city lifestyles * creation * Urbanization * city economic climate and paintings concerns * Healthcare * schooling * eating places * Marketplaces and road proprietors * Transportation * Bus * automobiles * Taxis * highway Crime and Solicitations * bankruptcy five: RURAL existence * Land Distribution * Rural economic climate * Rural Transportation * Healthcare * schooling * Village lifestyles * Border Crossings and Checkpoints * Landmines * bankruptcy 6: kinfolk existence * average loved ones and relatives constitution * Roles and duties in the relations * prestige of ladies, teenagers, and youth * Married lifestyles and Divorce * relations occasions and Rites of Passage * Naming Conventions

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Download Iraq in Perspective - Orientation Guide, Iraqi, Kurmanji, by U.S. Government,U.S. Military,Department of Defense PDF

By U.S. Government,U.S. Military,Department of Defense

it is a professionally-formatted, unfastened flowing booklet copy of 4 designated, up to date publications produced by way of the dept of safety that offer accomplished information regarding all features of lifestyles in Iraq, with a different emphasis on geography, background, the economic climate, society, protection and armed forces concerns, faith, traditions, city and rural existence, ethnic teams, crime, the surroundings, govt, vacations, gender matters and lots more and plenty extra. Separate courses conceal Iraq in point of view - An Orientation advisor, Iraqi Cultural Orientation, Kurmanji Cultural Orientation, Sorani Cultural Orientation.

Iraq in viewpoint - An Orientation consultant - bankruptcy 1 - Geography * creation * Geographic Divisions * desolate tract * higher Tigris and Euphrates Upland * Northeast Highlands * Alluvial Plains * weather * significant Rivers * Tigris River * Euphrates River * Shatt al-Arab * significant towns * Baghdad * Basrah * Mosul (Al-Mawsil) * Kirkuk * Arbil * typical risks * Environmental matters * bankruptcy 2 - heritage * creation * old Cultures of Mesopotamia * unfold of Islam * Ottoman and Safavid clash * The Ottoman period * global conflict I and the British Mandate * Faisal I and the Hashemite country * Independence and global warfare II * Post-World warfare II * the autumn of the Hashemite Monarchy * The Qasim Regime * The Arif Brothers and the Ba'athists * the increase of Saddam Hussein * Kurdish Push for Autonomy * The Iran-Iraq struggle * the 1st Persian Gulf warfare * Sanctions * guns Inspections * Invasion and next Iraqi Governance * safeguard Efforts * fresh occasions * bankruptcy three - economic system * creation * the advance of Iraq's economic climate * Agriculture * * companies * Banking * Tourism * strength * Oil * usual gasoline * electrical energy * exchange * lifestyle * Transportation * funding weather * enterprise Outlook * bankruptcy four - Society * creation * faith and Ethnicity * faith * Ethnicity * Languages * Gender matters * Honor Killings * delicacies * conventional costume * the humanities * activities * bankruptcy five - safeguard * creation * United States-Iraq family * kinfolk with Neighboring nations * Iran * Syria * Jordan * Saudi Arabia * Kuwait * Turkey * Geopolitics of Water assets * matters Affecting defense * Poverty * Displaced individuals and Refugees * Corruption * army and Police constitution * Terrorist teams * Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) * different rebel Groups

Chapter 1 - Profile * advent * Geography * sector * Geographic Divisions * Topographic gains * weather * Rivers * Draining of the Marshlands * surroundings * harm to Biodiversity and surroundings from warfare * significant towns * Baghdad * Mosul * Basrah * Karbala * Kirkuk * Erbil * Pre-Modern historical past * historical heritage * Islamic Empires * The Ottoman Empire and the British * fresh background * Operation Iraqi Freedom * Post-Saddam Iraq * economic system * review * The Oil quarter * the rural region * The providers area * Rebuilding the Infrastructure * Telecommunications * Mass Media * electrical energy * Ethnic and different Minority teams * Kurds * Marsh Arabs (Ma'dan) * Turkmen and different Minority teams * bankruptcy 1 review * bankruptcy 2 - faith * advent * heritage of Islam * lower than Muhammad's management * less than Muhammad's quick Successors * Schism * Sunni and Shi'a Islam * Sunnis * Sunni Iraqi Kurds * Shi'ites * Shi'a Iraqi Political Affiliations * Sufism * The Pillars of Islam * Non-Islamic Religions * Christianity * Yazidis * Mandaeism * function of faith within the executive * Baathism * spiritual legislation * impression of faith on way of life * structures of Worship * Mosques * Mosque Etiquette * Shrines * church buildings * non secular occasions * Ramadan * Ashura * bankruptcy 2 evaluation * bankruptcy three - Traditions * Greeting and Interacting * Hospitality * replacing presents * Sharing * Honor and Offenses * Vendettas and Honor Killings * Male-Female Relationships * interplay with Iraqi Women

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Download The Arab Spring: The Hope and Reality of the Uprisings by David W. Lesch,Mark L. Haas PDF

By David W. Lesch,Mark L. Haas

Beginning in overdue 2010, peaceable protests opposed to entrenched regimes abruptly erupted in a couple of Arab international locations, inflicting political upheaval around the area. via contributions from famous students, The Arab Spring offers a accomplished review of the explanations, key matters, and aftermath of those occasions. Divided into elements, the ebook first examines the Arab international locations so much dramatically impacted by way of the uprisings, in addition to why a few of their Arab acquaintances shunned large-scale protests. the second one half explores different countries&mdashinside and out of doors the region-that have a stake and curiosity within the uprisings.

The moment variation contains a new bankruptcy on Iraq and assurance of advancements within the sector when you consider that 2012 and the way they've got altered preliminary tests of the Arab Spring's results. New half introductions and a revised concluding bankruptcy supply contextualization and comparative analyses of key subject matters and broader questions. this can be a necessary quantity for college kids and students looking the fullest figuring out of the way the Arab uprisings proceed to affect the sector and the world.

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Download Disability in the Ottoman Arab World, 1500–1800 (Cambridge by Sara Scalenghe PDF

By Sara Scalenghe

actual, sensory, and psychological impairments can impression an individual's prestige in society up to the extra normal different types of gender, category, faith, race, and ethnicity. This was once very true of the Ottoman Arab international, the place being judged capable or disabled impacted each element of a person's lifestyles, together with functionality of spiritual ritual, marriage, task possibilities, and the power to shop for and promote property. Disability within the Ottoman Arab global, 1500-1800 is the 1st book-length historic examine of blindness, deafness, intersex, and insanity within the heart East and North Africa from the point of view of incapacity. in contrast to earlier scholarly works that research incapacity as mentioned in spiritual texts resembling the Qur'an and the Hadith, this research makes a speciality of representations and studies of impairments throughout a variety of resources, together with chronicles, biographical dictionaries, drugs, and criminal texts.

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Download A Chronology of Ancient Greece : by Timothy Venning PDF

By Timothy Venning

This publication bargains a coherent narrative of the politico-military historical past of historic Greece. It commences with the inevitably approximate process occasions in Bronze and early Iron Age, as envisioned by way of the main trustworthy scholarship plus the mythical debts of this era. From the Persian Wars onwards, a year-by-year chronology is made from the traditional historic resources. the place attainable a daily narrative is given.

The geographical scope expands because the horizons of the Greek global and colonization accelerated almost about advancements in politico-military occasions within the heart jap (and later Italian) states that got here into touch with Greek tradition. From the growth of the Greek international around the area lower than Alexander, the improvement of the entire proper Greek/Macedonian states is roofed. The textual content is split into occasions in line with geographical region for every date, cross-referencing the place wanted. precise bills are supplied for battles and political crises the place the assets let this, and the place no longer a lot is understood for convinced the several critiques of historians are referenced en direction. the result's a coherent, obtainable and actual connection with what occurred and when.

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